Which of the following statements below best describe the process identifier that is used to run OSPF on a router? (Choose two)
A – It is an optional parameter required only if multiple OSPF processes are running on the router
B – It is locally significant
C – It is needed to identify a unique instance of an OSPF database
D – All routers in the same OSPF area must have the same process ID if they are to exchange routing information
Answer: B C
Which items are correct about the routing protocol OSPF? (Choose three)
A – Support VLSM
B – Increase routing overhead on the network
C – Confine network instability to one area of the network
D – Allow extensive control of routing updates
Answer: A C D
Routing overhead is the amount of information needed to describe the changes in a dynamic network topology. All routers in an OSPF area have identical copies of the topology database and the topology database of one area is hidden from the rest of the areas to reduce routing overhead because fewer routing updates are sent and smaller routing trees are computed and maintained (allow extensive control of routing updates and confine network instability to one area of the network).
Which three features are of OSPF routing protocol? (Choose three)
A – Converge quickly
B – OSPF is a classful routing protocol
C – Identify the best route by use of cost
D – Before exchanging routing information, OSPF routers find out neighbors
Answer: A C D
OSPF routing uses the concept of areas. What are the characteristics of OSPF areas? (Chose three)
A – Each OSPF area requires a loopback interface to be configured
B – Areas may be assigned any number from 0 to 65535
C – Area 0 is called the backbone area
D – Hierarchical OSPF networks do not require multiple areas
E – Multiple OSPF areas must connect to area 0
F – Single area OSPF networks must be configured in area 1
Answer: B C E
I used to think the answers should be C D E and here is my explanation:
OSPF can use an active interface for its router ID, so a loopback interface is not a must -> A is incorrect.
OSPF Area is a 32-bit number so we can use up to 232 – 1 = 4294967296 – 1 (since Area 0 is the first area). Remember that only process ID is a 16-bit number and ranges from 1 to 65535 -> B is incorrect.
F is incorrect too because single area OSPF netwoks must be configured in Area 0, which is called the backbone area.
For answer D, it is a bit hard to guess what they want to say about “hierarchical” but we should understand “Hierarchical OSPF networks” as “OSPF networks”. D is correct bercause we can only have one area (area 0 – the backbone area) for our networks.
But TT commented on 01-11-2010:
Especially to note on choice B, D, and E:
Choice B: we all know that The areas can be any number from 0 to 4.2 billion and 1 to 65,535 for the Process ID. As choice B specifies ‘area’ (be aware, it’s not saying ‘process id), there is no reason to say that we cannot assign numbers from 0 to 65535 for area # (it is using ‘may be’, not ‘have to be’ or ‘ought to be’). Hence, we do not worry about assigning ’0′.
Choice E: as Area 0 is the backbone, we all understand that any areas in a OSPF network have to be connected to it. And actually this is implicitly saying that multiple areas form a hierarchical OSPF network, as Area 0 being a root and others being its leaves.
Choice D: when it specifies ‘Hierarchical’, at least 2 areas should be required to form such topology (of course that includes Area 0)
Although Choice B is not an absolutely accurate statement since it not only can be assigned up to 65535, it is still a correct answer. And again, it specifies ‘area’, not ‘process id’, so ’0′ can be included. Finally, it would be meaningless to call OSPF a hierarchical network if no more than one area is present.