Tag - Osi Model

Cisco CCNA Notes


Cisco Certifications

CCNA 200-125 – Free Questions and Answers

CCNA 200-120 Questions and Answers

Basic Definitions

Download Cisco Exams PREMIUM PDF

Hardware Components

  1. Network Card
  2. Repeaters
  3. Hubs
  4. Bridges


CCNA Lectures

 CCNA Lecture Slides from Day 1 to Day 14 Lecture

Day 1

Day 2

Addresses IP

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Determining IP Routes

Day 6

Distance vector Routing protocols

Day 7

Distance vector Routing protocols

Day 8

Establishing a Frame Relay PVC Connection

Day 9

Day 10

Basic IP Traffic Management with Access Lists

Day 11

Day 12

Day 13

Day 14

  1. CCNA Day 1
  2. CCNA Day 2
  3. CCNA Day 3
  4. CCNA Day 4
  5. CCNA Day 5

Question and Answers


CCNA Books


Cisco Latest Dumps – Instant Download:

Exam CodeExam Name PDF VCE ETE
010-151Supporting Cisco Data Center System Devices (DCTECH)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
100-105Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 (ICND1)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-105Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 2 (ICND2)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-125Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-150Introducing Cisco Data Center NetworkingOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-155Introducing Cisco Data Center TechnologiesOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-310Designing for Cisco Internetwork SolutionsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-355CCNA Wireless Implementing Cisco Wireless Network FundamentalsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-401Managing Industrial Networks with Cisco Networking TechnologiesOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
200-601Managing Industrial Networks for Manufacturing with Cisco TechnologiesOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-060CCNA Collaboration Implementing Cisco Collaboration Devices (CICD)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-065CCNA Collaboration Implementing Cisco Video Network Devices (CIVND)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-250CCNA Cyber Ops Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity FundamentalsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-255CCNA Cyber Ops Implementing Cisco Cybersecurity OperationsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-260CCNA Security Implementing Cisco Network SecurityOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-451Understanding Cisco Cloud FundamentalsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
210-455Introducing Cisco Cloud AdministrationOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-070Implementing Cisco IP Telephony and Video, Part 1 (CIPTV1)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-075Implementing Cisco IP Telephony and Video, Part 2 (CIPTV2)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-080Troubleshooting Cisco IP Telephony and Video (CTCOLLAB)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-085Implementing Cisco Collaboration Applications (CAPPS)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-101CCNP Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v2.0)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-115CCNP Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH v2.0)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-135CCNP Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT v2.0)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-160Designing Cisco Data Center InfrastructureOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-165Implementing Cisco Data Center InfrastructureOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-170Implementing Cisco Data Center Virtualization and AutomationOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-175Implementing Cisco Data Center Unified ComputingOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-180Troubleshooting Cisco Data Center Infrastructure (DCIT)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-206CCNP Security Implementing Cisco Edge Network Security Solutions (SENSS)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-208CCNP Security Implementing Cisco Secure Access Solutions (SISAS)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-209CCNP Security Implementing Cisco Secure Mobility Solutions (SIMOS)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-210CCNP Security Implementing Cisco Threat Control SolutionsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-320Designing Cisco Network Service ArchitecturesOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-360Designing Cisco Wireless Enterprise NetworksOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-365Deploying Cisco Wireless Enterprise NetworksOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-370Troubleshooting Cisco Wireless Enterprise NetworkOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-375Securing Cisco Wireless Enterprise NetworksOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-460Implementing and Troubleshooting the Cisco Cloud InfrastructureOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-465Designing the Cisco CloudOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
300-550Designing and Implementing Cisco Network ProgrammabilityOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
350-018CCIE Security Written Exam v4.0Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
350-030CCIE Voice Written v3.0Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
350-080CCIE Data Center WrittenOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
352-001CCDE Design WrittenOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
400-051CCIE Collaboration WrittenOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
400-101CCIE Routing and Switching WrittenOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
400-151CCIE Data Center Written ExamOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
400-201CCIE SP Written v4.1Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
400-251CCIE Security Written ExamOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
400-351CCIE Wireless Written ExamOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-006Implementing Cisco TelePresence Video Solution, Part 2Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-007Implementing Cisco TelePresence Video Solution, Part 1Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-051Unified Communications Contact Center Express Implementation - UCCXOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-052Deploying Cisco Unified Contact Center ExpressOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-170Designing the FlexPod Solution (FPDESIGN)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-171Implementing and Administering the FlexPod Solution (FPIMPADM)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-230Cisco Service Provider Routing Field EngineerOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-240 Cisco Mobile Backhaul for Field EngineersOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-254Implementing and Configuring Cisco Identity Services EngineOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-265Advanced Security Architecture for System EngineersOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-275Securing Cisco Networks with Sourcefire FireAMP EndpointsGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-285Securing Cisco Networks with Sourcefire Intrusion Prevention SystemOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-301Cisco Cloud Collaboration SolutionsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-325Cisco Collaboration Servers and AppliancesGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-451Enterprise Network Unified Access EssentialsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-452Enterprise Networks Core and WANOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-470Cisco Enterprise Networks SDA, SDWAN and ISE Exam for System EngineersOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-490Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENDESIGN)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-551Cisco Networking: On-Premise and Cloud SolutionsOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-651Advanced Security Architecture for Systems EngineersOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder VCE
500-701Cisco Video Infrastructure DesignGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
500-710Video infrastructure implementationGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
600-212Implementing Cisco Service Provider Mobility LTE Networks (SPLTE)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
600-455Designing Cisco Unified Contact Center EnterpriseGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
600-460Implementing andSupporting Cisco Unified Contact Center EnterpriseGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
640-692Supporting Cisco Routing and Switching Network Devices (RSTECH)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
640-875Building Cisco Service Provider Next-Generation Networks, Part 1 (SPNGN1)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
640-878Building Cisco Service Provider Next-Generation Networks, Part 2 (SPNGN2)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
640-911Introducing Cisco Data Center Networking - DCICNOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-737Implementing Advanced Cisco Unified Wireless Security (IAUWS) v2.0Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-742Implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Voice Networks (IUWVN)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-747Implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Mobility Services (IUWMS)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-883Deploying Cisco Service Provider Network Routing (SPROUTE)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-885Deploying Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing (SPADVROUTE)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-887Implementing Cisco Service Provider Next-Generation Core
Network Services (SPCORE)
Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-889Implementing Cisco Service Provider Next-Generation Edge
Network Services (SPEDGE)
Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-902Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE v1.0)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
642-998Designing Cisco Data Center Unified Computing (DCUCD)Order PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
644-066Routing and Switching Solutions for System Engineers - RSSSEGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
644-068Advanced Routing and Switching for Field Engineers - ARSFEGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
646-048Advanced Routing and Switching for Account Managers - ARSAMGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
646-365Cisco Express Foundation for Account Managers (CXFA)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
646-985Data Center Networking Solution Sales (DCNSS)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
648-232Cisco WebEx Solutions Design and Implementation - CWSDIOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
648-244Designing and Implementing Cisco Unified Communications
on Unified Computing Systems - DIUCUCS
Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
648-375Cisco Express Foundation for Systems Engineers (CXFS)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
648-385Cisco Express Foundation for Field EngineersGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-059Cisco Lifecycle Services Advanced Routing and SwitchingGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-082Mobile Internet Technology for System EngineersGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-127Authorized Connected Grid Engineer Knowledge VerificationGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-128Authorized Connected Grid Account Manager Knowledge VerificationGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-292TelePresence Video Sales Specialist for ExpressGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-293TelePresence Video Sales Engineer for ExpressGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-472Introduction to 802.1X Operations for Cisco Security ProfessionalsGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-474Introducing Cisco Identity Services Engine for System EngineerGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-621Lifecycle Services for Advanced Wireless LAN (LCSAWLAN)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
650-987Cisco Data Center Unified Computing Sales SpecialistGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-037Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales SpecialistOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-038Advanced Collaboration Architecture Field EngineerOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-039Advanced Collaboration Architecture Sales EngineerOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-070Cisco TelePresence IX5000 Series Immersive SolutionsGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-101Business Edition 6000 for Sales EngineersGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-104Business Edition 6000 for Account Managers (BE6KAM)Get PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-260Advanced Security Architecture for Account ManagerGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-265Cisco Advanced Security Architecture for Account ManagersGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-302Advanced Borderless Network Architecture Field EngineerGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-501SMB Solutions for EngineersOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-505SMB Solutions for Account ManagersOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-651Cisco Collaboration Architecture Sales EssentialsGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
700-703Application Centric Infrastructure for Field Engineers ExamGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
810-403Selling Business OutcomesOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
810-440Adopting The Cisco Business Architecture ApproachOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE
820-427Building Business Specialist SkillsGet PDF FileOrder VCEOrder ETE
840-450Mastering The Cisco Business Architecture DisciplineOrder PDFOrder VCEOrder ETE

Broadcast Domain

A broadcast domain is simply the group of end hosts that will receive a broadcast sent out by a given host. For example, if there are ten host devices connected to a switch and one of them sends a broadcast, the other nine devices will receive the broadcast. All of those devices are in the same broadcast domain.

Of course, we probably don’t want every device in a network receiving every single broadcast sent out by any other device in the network! This is why we need to know what devices can create multiple, smaller broadcast domains. Doing so allows us to limit the broadcasts traveling around our network – and you might be surprised how much traffic on some networks consists of unnecessary broadcasts.


Using the OSI model, we find devices such as hubs and repeaters at Layer One. This is the Physical layer, and devices at this layer have no effect on broadcast domains.

At Layer Two, we’ve got switches and bridges. By default, a switch has no effect on broadcast domains; CCNA candidates know that a switch will forward a broadcast out every single port on that switch except the one upon which it was received. However, Cisco switches allow the creation of Virtual Local Area Networks, or VLANs, that are logical segments of the network. A broadcast sent by one host in a VLAN will not be forwarded out every other port on the switch. That broadcast will be forwarded only out ports that are members of the same VLAN as the host device that sent it.

The good news is that broadcast traffic will not be forwarded between VLANs. The bad news is that no inter-VLAN traffic at all is allowed by default! You may actually want this in some cases, but generally you’re going to want inter-VLAN traffic. This requires the use of a router or other Layer 3 device such as a Layer 3 Switch. (Layer 3 Switches are becoming more popular every day. Basically, it’s a switch that can also run routing protocols. These switches are not tested on the CCNA exam.)

That router we just talked about also defines broadcast domains. Routers do not forward broadcasts, so broadcast domains are defined by routers with no additional configuration.

Knowing how broadcasts travel across your network, and how they can be controlled, is an important part of being a CCNA and of being a superior network administrator. Best of luck to you in both of these pursuits!

Application Layer

Application Layer enable the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail,file access and transfer, access to system resource, surfing the world wide web, and network management.

Application layer is Responsible for Providing Services to the user.

  • Application Layer is a term used in categorizing protocols and methods in architectural models of computer networking. Both the OSI model and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) define application layers.
  • In TCP/IP, the Application Layer contains all protocols and methods that fall into the realm of process-to-process communications via an Internet Protocol (IP) network using the Transport Layer protocols to establish underlying host-to-host connections.
  • Provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application. This layer is the main interface for the user to interact with the application and therefore the network.
  • The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. When identifying communication partners, the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. When determining resource availability, the application layer must decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested communication exist. In synchronizing communication, all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer.


Some examples of application layer implementations include Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

 OSI  Model


  • Application Layer do¬†Interaction (Providing Services to the user)
  • 80% Application on internet do interact
  • i.e ¬†google.com —–> will auto —–> ¬†www.google.com ——> Here www intract ¬†on port 80
  • i.e ¬†for buy house property dealer do interact

Application Layer Protocols

Copyright ©2010 -  2019 Ciscoforall.com | Privacy Policy