IOS (internetwork Operating system) Modes

IOS or switch accessing modes are steps to access and work on switch.
These are three and listed below
1.  user Mode
2.  privilege Mode
3.  configuration mode

1. user Mode

User mode in initial stand by mode in which we can see user information. The syntax of the user mode is “switch>”

2. privilege Mode:

This is the second and middle mode, in which we can enter by commend “enable” from user mode. Here we can give commend such like copy, save, show or view the configuration of the switch. The syntax of the privilege mode is “switch#”

3. Configuration Mode:

Configuration mode is the central mode and all the configuration is take place here. And we enter from privilege mode to configuration mode by commend “configure terminal” and the syntax is “switch(configure)#”.
Method of Accessing Switch IOS:
1.  Direct Access through Console port
2.  Access through LAN by Telnet
3.  SSH (source socket shell)application
IOS Modes
Router IOS modes
Step1. Direct access through console port
  After physical connectivity
  Open hyper terminal application as, start—programs—accessories—-   communication—-Hyper terminal.
  Give any name to the session
  Select 9600 speed
  Select COM port either COM-I or COM-II (this will open commend line interface window)
Host Name Configuration:
  Switch> enable
  Switch# config t
  Switch(config)# hostname inam
  Inam(config)# exit
  Inam#
To Set system Clock, Date and Time on Switch or Router:
  Router>enable
  Router# clock set 08:50:25 2 Dec 2008
How give password to different modes of switch:  
  Switch>
  Switch >enable
  Switch#
  Switch #configure terminal
  Switch(configure)# line console 0
  Switch(config-line)#password ccna             Console Port password
  Switch(config-line)#login
  Switch(config-line)#exit
  Switch(configure)#
  Switch(configure)#line vty 0
  Switch(config-line)#password inara          Virtual terminal password
  Switch(config-line)#exit
  Switch(configure)#
  Switch(configure)#enable password mcse——————Privilege mode password
How to show / view the configuration of switch:
  Switch# show running-configure
How to save these configurations:
For saving different commends and configuration is
  Switch# Copy running-configure startup-configure        OR
  Switch# write mem
How to encrypt the password
  Switch(configure)# service password-encryption
How to remove the Password
To remove the console password as
  Switch(configure)#line console 0
  Switch(config-line)#no password
  Switch(config-line)#exit
  Switch(configure)#
Now to remove the privilege mode password
  Switch(configure)#no enable password
Now to remove the virtual terminal password
  Switch(configure)#line vty 0
  Switch(config-line)#no password
  Switch(config-line)#exit
  Switch(configure)#
And save it
To show these configurations:
  Switch# show running-configure
Password recovery
If we loss the password or other some thing happen then we can recover our password as
  Turn off the switch
  Then Turn on the switch
  Hold/Press the mode button of the switch for a few seconds until it enter in mini IOS as “switch:”
  Initialized the flash memory as
  Switch: flash-init
The password are laying in config directory so delete it as
  Switch: del flash:config.old
  Switch: Y (for confirmation press Y for yes)
  Switch: rename flash:config.text flah:fonfig.old
For checking the directory
  Switch: dir flash:/
And now boot the IOS as
  Switch: boot
And enter to configuration mode and remove the password and save it as
  Switch> enable
  Switch# configure terminal
  Switch(config)# line cons 0
  Switch(config)# no password
  Switch (config)# exit
  Switch #
  Switch # copy running-configure startup-configure or “write mem”
Step2. Access through Telnet
  To access the IOS of switch from LAN
  Privilege and virtual terminal password is must.
Then do the configuration as
  Switch>enable
  Switch# conf terminal
  Switch(configure)# interface vlan 1
  Switch(configure-if)# ip address
  Switch(configure-if)# no shut
  Switch(configure-if)#exit
Now go to the client computer and do as. Start—-run— give the CMD in run
  C:/> telnet and press enter
  It prompt for vty password then
  Switch> enable
  Now it will prompt for console password give it and it will enter to privilege mode as
  Switch#
  Switch# configure terminal ( for configuration on switch by virtual terminal)
MAC Address Table:
For showing MAC address table as
  Switch# Show mac-add-table
And to show the aging time of the mac-add-table as
  Switch# Show mac-add-table aging-time
Requirement for entering addresses statically to MAC address table
  MAC address of the computer
  Port no of that computer is to be used
  Switch> enable
  Switch# configure terminal
  Switch(configure)# mac-add-table static 0052.45b5.2g52(mac address)  int fa 0/1(port no) vlan 1
  If we want that to take the mac address automatically we use the work “sticky” for mac address as
  Switch(configure)# mac-add-table static sticky int fa 0/1 vlan 1
If we want to remove it from table as
  Switch(configure)# no mac-add-table static 0052.45b5.2g52 int fa 0/1 vlan 1 and save it as
  Switch# write mem

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