Tag - hub

What is the difference between a router and hub or switch?

Question: What is the difference between a router and hub or switch?
Answer: A¬†router is a more sophisticated network device than either a¬†switch or a¬†hub. Like hubs and switches, network routers are typically small, box-like pieces of equipment that multiple computers can connect. Each features a number of “ports” the front or back that provide the connection points for these computers, a connection for electric power, and a number of LED lights to display device status. While routers, hubs and switches all share similiar physical appearance, routers differ substantially in their inner workings.Traditional routers are designed to join multiple area networks (LANs and¬†WANs). On the Internet or on a large corporate network, for example, routers serve as intermediate destinations for network traffic. These routers receive¬†TCP/IP packets, look inside each packet to identify the source and target¬†IP addresses, then forward these packets as needed to ensure the data reaches its final destination.Routers for home networks (often calledbroadband routers) also can join multiple networks. These routers are designed specifically to join the home (LAN) to the Internet (WAN) for the purpose of Internet connection sharing. In contrast, neither hubs nor switches are capable of joining multiple networks or sharing an Internet connection. A home network with only hubs and switches must designate one computer as the gateway to the Internet, and that device must possess two¬†network adapters for sharing, one for the home LAN and one for the Internet WAN. With a router, all home computers connect to the router equally, and it performs the equivalent gateway functions.

Router Switch Hub

Additionally, broadband routers contain several features beyond those of traditional routers. Broadband routers provide DHCP server and proxy support, for example. Most of these routers also offer integrated firewalls. Finally, wired Ethernet broadband routers typically incorporate a built-in Ethernet switch. These routers allow several hubs or switches to be connected to them, as a means to expand the local network to accomodate more Ethernet devices.

In home networking, hubs and switches technically exist only for wired networks. Wi-Fiwireless routers incorporate a built-in access point that is roughly equivalent to a wired switch.

Switch Basics Step by Step


Switch is used to send data from one system another in a network. Commonly switches are Layer1, layer2, Layer3 and Layer4. Layer1 is simply called Hub. Which work on Broadcasting and used in small network. Layer 2 switch is used for little bit large network and it control Broadcasting up to some how. Layer3 switch is known as Router.


Interface of Switch:

It may a simple Ethernet or Fast Ethernet. Simple Ethernet is 10mbs and fast Ethernet is 100mbps speed.

Console Port:

Console port is used to access the IOS of a switch. Rollover cable is used to access the IOS of switch from console port. One end of the cable is plugged in console port and second end cable is plugged un DB-9 connector, which is connected in COM-1 or COM-II port of the mother board in computer. Default band width of console port is 9600 Mbps, which can be changed.


Broad cast Domain:

It takes the data to all the points in a switch. It generate conjunction.

Collision Domain:

It senses the line and that the line is free or not. It also generates conjunction. It occurs in Layer1 Switch.


ASIC stand for “Application Specific Integral Circuit”. It is a chip which is used for controlling Broadcasting.


MAC Address Table:

MAC Address Table is used to store the addresses, port no and status of destination and sources. The data is sending in layer2 switch by MAC address table. MAC address table status is changed when the entries are dynamically and when that source and destination which not used upto 500 second the MAC address table flash out the records. When the records are enter statically so it remain constant and by this way we can restrict some one to use only the selected port.


A Switch performs:

  1. Learning
  2. Forwarding
  3. Filtering



Learning means when data is reached from source to destination, the destination send back an Acknowledgement to source for successfully arrival. So the destination find out the source address for the MAC address table and send the ACK only to source system, it is called Learning.



When a source “aa” send data to “bb”, and also “bb” send back ACK to source “aa” the address of both the source and destination is stored in MAC address table. When “aa” want to send more data to “bb”¬† the address of “bb” present in MAC address table, it only read for it and simply forward it on the address of “bb”. It is called Forwarding.



When a Hub is connected to the switch and on the Hub “kk” and “mm” are connected to it. When “kk” want to send data to “mm” so the data will be blocked on the last port of switch which is connected to the Hub, and data will only be broadcasting in Hub not to switch too. It is called Filtering.

How to Make a Network Cable

  • Unroll the required length of network cable and add a little extra wire, just in case.
  • Carefully remove the outer jacket of the cable.

There are two methods set by the TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association.), 568A and 568B. Which one you use will depend on what is being connected. A straight-through cable is used to connect two different-layer devices (e.g. a hub and a PC). Two like devices normally require a cross-over cable. The difference between the two is that a straight-through cable has both ends wired identically with 568B, while a cross-over cable has one end wired 568A and the other end wired 568B.



Straight-through Cable

568B – Put the wires in the following order, from left to right:

  • white orange
  • orange
  • white green
  • blue
  • white blue
  • green
  • white brown
  • brown

568A – from left to right:


Cross-over Cable


  • white/green
  • green
  • white/orange
  • blue
  • white/blue
  • orange
  • white/brown
  • brown

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