Tag - Protocol Application

Application Layer Protocols

Application Protocols Supported by the Application Layer

  • Telnet

A TCP/IP protocol that provides terminal emulation to a remote host by creating a virtual terminal. TeraTerm is one program that can be installed on a user computer to create Telnet sessions. This protocol requires authentication via a username and password.

application layer

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP):

Enables web browsing with the transmission of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) documents on the Internet.

  • Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS):

Enables secure web browsing. A secure connection is indicated when the URL begins with https:// or when a lock symbol is in the lower-right corner of the web page that is being viewed.

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) :

Allows a user to transfer files. Provides access to files and directories.

  • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP):

A bare-bones version of FTP that does not provide access to directories. With TFTP you can simply send and receive files. Unlike FTP, TFTP is not secure and sends smaller blocks of data.

  • Domain Name System (DNS):

Resolves hostnames such as cisco.com into IP addresses.


  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP):

Sends email across the network.

  • Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3):

Receives email by accessing a network server.


  • Network File System (NFS):

Allows users with different operating systems (that is, NT and Unix workstations) to share files through a network.Remote files appear as though they reside on a local machine even though the local machine might be “diskless.”

  • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)

Offers access to Usenet newsgroup postings.Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Monitors the network and manages configurations.Collects statistics to analyze network performance and
ensure network security.

  • Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Synchronizes clocks on the Internet to provide accurate local time on the user system.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Works dynamically to provide an IP address, subnet mask, domain name, and a default gateway for routers. Works with DNS and WINS (used for NetBIOS addressing).

what is Connection oriented and Connectionless

Difference Between Connection oriented vs Connection less 

Connection-oriented means that a connection (a virtual link) must be established before data can be exchanged. This can guarantee that data will arrive, and in the same order it was sent. It guarantees delivery by sending acknowledgements back to the source when messages are received.


TCP is an example of an connection-oriented transport protocol.

A common example of connection-oriented communication is a telephone call: you call, the ‘destination’ picks up the phone and acknowledges and you start talking (sending data). When a message or a piece of it doesn’t arrive, you say: “What!?” and the sender will retransmit the data.

Connectionless is the opposite of connection-oriented; the sender does not establish a connection before it sends data, it just sends without guaranteeing delivery.


UDP is an example of an connectionless transport protocol.

Application Layers

Host A————————————Host B

Application layer——-data————Application layer

Presentation layer—–data————Presentation layer

Session layer———–data————Session layer

Transport layer—–segments——–Transport layer

Network layer   ——packets———-Network layer

Data-link layer——-frames———–Data-link layer

Physical layer———–bits————-Physical layer


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