Tag - Wan Technology

What is Frame Relay

Frame Relay is a WAN technology, it is used for communication. Frame relay is an industry standard, shared across, best effort, switch Data Link layer encapsulation that services multiple virtual circuits and protocols between connected mechanisms.


Frame Relay Terminologies:

1. Local-Access-Rate: 

Form 64- 2MB. It is a required bandwidth

2. Virtual Circuit

It is used for connection to a station

Types of VC:

  • PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit)

           It is a dedicated line, which is used permanently

  • SVC (Switch Virtual Circuit)

           It is used when data is flowing.

3. Committed information Rate:

      Frame relay works by providing a portion of dedicated bandwidth to each user, and it also allows the user to exceed their guaranteed bandwidth if resources on the Telco network happen to be available. Frame Relay providers allow customers to buy a lower amount of bandwidth than what they really use.

 4. Data Link Connection Identifier:

It is a value which is used in virtual circuit.

5. Local Management Interface:

It is used to establish connection between Frame Relay switch and client router.

 Configuration of a Router in a Frame Relay environment:

  • Router(config)# int so
  • Router(config_if)# ip address
  • Router(cofnig_if)# encapsulation frame-relay
  • Router(config_if)# frame-relay lmi-type ansi
  • Router(config_if)# no shut
  • Router(config_if)# exit

what is ATM? Quick review on this WAN technology


Short for Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a network technology based on transferring data in cells or packets of a fixed size. The cell used with ATM is relatively small compared to units used with older technologies. The small, constant cell size allows ATM equipment to transmit video, audio, and computer data over the same network, and assure that no single type of data hogs the line.


Some people think that ATM holds the answer to the Internet bandwidth problem, but others are skeptical. ATM creates a fixed channel, or route, between two points whenever data transfer begins. This differs from TCP/IP, in which messages are divided into packets and each packet can take a different route from source to destination. This difference makes it easier to track and bill data usage across an ATM network, but it makes it less adaptable to sudden surges in network traffic.

When purchasing ATM service, you generally have a choice of four different types of service:

  • constant bit rate (CBR): specifies a fixed bit rate so that data is sent in a steady stream. This is analogous to a leased line.
  • variable bit rate (VBR): provides a specified throughput capacity but data is not sent evenly. This is a popular choice for voice and videoconferencing data.
  • available bit rate (ABR): provides a guaranteed minimum capacity but allows data to be bursted at higher capacities when the network is free.
  • unspecified bit rate (UBR): does not guarantee any throughput levels. This is used for applications, such as file transfer, that can tolerate delays.

Short Question CCNA IP

161- In stead of wild card mask what u can write after IP?


162- In which Access- list type you can’t do editing?

Standard and Extended

163- In port based Access-List which command u give instead of IP?


164- What does EQ means?


165- Which reserve port Number Talent use?


166- Which reserve port NO HTTP use?


167-How many types of NAT?

i) Static

ii) NAT

iii) Dynamic NAT

iv) PAT (Port Address Translation)

168- What is overlaod?

It’s another name of PAT (Port Address Translation)

170- Which 2 Protocols are in WAN technology?

i) HDLC ( High Level Data Link Control )

ii) PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

171- How many types of ends in WAN?

i) DTE (Data Terminal Equipment

ii) DCE (Data Communication Equipment)


CCNA Interview Question Part 1

CCNA Interview Question Part 2

CCNA Interview Question Part 3

CCNA Interview Question Part 4

CCNA Interview Question Part 5

CCNA Interview Question Part 6

CCNA Interview Question Part 7

CCNA Interview Question Part 8

CCNA Interview Question Part 9

CCNA Interview Question Part 10

CCNA Interview Question Part 11

CCNA Interview Question Part 12

CCNA Interview Question Part 13

CCNA Interview Question Part 14

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