RIP and OSPF are both routing protocols likely you have used without even knowing it. A routing protocol describes the way your data (or signals) get from your PC on a network to another PC or device on the network.
RIP = Hop count Algorithm
The only metric used to calculate the cost of a path (path is from point A to destination B) is the hop count from router A to router B, even if you have a path with more hops and more bandwidth available.
OSPF = Link State Algorithm
This is a more intelligent algorithm, tha build a topology of network and build the cost regarding some characteristics of path like bandwidth, load, reliability, etc.A real life example would be like when work is done and its time to drive home. You have multiple routes usually to choose from to get home. The shortest way home would obviously be a straight line from work to home. Unfortunately no magic road exists from where ever you are directly to where ever you need to go. So if you were using RIP to get home you would drive in a straight line (or take the roads that would more or less offer you a straight route home). Thing is, these roads may be BUSY, very busy in fact, you can sit in traffic for a half hour moving less than 1km sometimes. So technically the shortest way (straight line) may not be the most efficient way. Now if you were using OSPF, you would take into account traffic and other variables to decide how to get home. The quickest route home may not be the direct path, it may be a back road that has less traffic on it, through a sub division, and then to your house. However because you were using OSPF you got home quicker than if you were to use RIP as RIP didn’t really look at what the traffic was like. Now in the above paragraph turn the word “work” into “client” and the word “home” into “server” and replace the word “you” with “the packet” – magically we turn the above paragraph into tecnobabble